In this tutorial you will find out about the .htaccess file and the power it has to improve your website. Nan Resources supports .htaccess files however as a customer you are responsible for what is in this file and how it changes your site.
Creating a .htaccess File
You can create a .htaccess file on your local computer or on the server.
On your computer:
Windows: Using Notepad save the file as .htaccess
Mac OS X: Using TextEdit save the file as ".htaccess"
Note: If you save the file as .htaccess it will be hidden and you will not be able to see it in the Finder.
Using your preferred FTP client upload the file to the server. The .htaccess file will need to be in the folder where your site is located, typically the public_html folder.
On the server
Login to your cPanel Account
Click the File Manager icon, located in the Files section.
From the File Manger popup choose "Choose Hidden Files (dotfiles)."
Note: If you do not see this popup you will need to click the "reset all interface settings" link at the bottom of the cPanel page.
From the File Manager popup choose the folder you would like to open, most often the "Web Root (public_html/www)"
Click the Go button.
Note: If you are in the File Manager already you can add &showhidden=1 to the end of the URL.
Click the New File icon to create a new file and name it .htaccess
Alternative Index Files
You may not always want to use index.htm or index.html as your index file for a directory, for example if you are using PHP files in your site, you may want index.php to be the index file for a directory. You are not limited to 'index' files though. Using .htaccess you can set foofoo.blah to be your index file if you want to!
Alternate index files are entered in a list. The server will work from left to right, checking to see if each file exists, if none of them exist it will display a directory listing (unless, of course, you have turned this off).
DirectoryIndex index.php index.php3 messagebrd.pl index.html index.htm
Custom Error Pages
You can customize your own, personal error pages (for example when a file is not found) instead of using Nan Resources’ error pages or not having an error page. This will make your site seem much more professional.
You can use custom error pages for any error as long as you know its number (like 404 for page not found) by adding the following to your .htaccess file:
ErrorDocument errornumber /file.html
For example if I had the file notfound.html in the root directory of my site and I wanted to use it for a 404 error I would use:
ErrorDocument 404 /notfound.html
If the error page is not in the root directory of your site, you can enter the path to the file:
ErrorDocument 500 /errorpages/500.html
These are some of the most common errors:
401 - Authorization Required
400 - Bad request
403 - Forbidden
500 - Internal Server Error
404 - Wrong page
Stop a Directory Index From Being Shown
Sometimes, for one reason or another, you will have no index file in your directory. This will, of course, mean that if someone types the directory name into their browser, a full listing of all the files in that directory will be shown. This could be a security risk for your site.
To prevent against this (without creating lots of new 'index' files, you can enter a command into your .htaccess file to stop the directory list from being shown:
# disable directory browsing
Options ExecCGI Includes IncludesNOEXEC SymLinksIfOwnerMatch -Indexes
# enable directory browsing
Options All +Indexes
Deny/Allow Certain IP Addresses
To only allow people with specific IP addresses to access your site (for example, only allowing people using a particular network to get into a certain directory) or you may want to ban certain IP addresses (for example, keeping disruptive members out of your message boards).This will only work if you know the IP addresses you would like to ban.
Please keep in mind that most ISP's use dynamic IP addresses, so this is not always the best way to limit/grant access.
Block an IP Address
deny from 184.108.40.206 #specify a specific address
deny from 220.127.116.11/30 #specify a subnet range
deny from 123.123.* #specify an IP address wildcard
allow from all
Allow an IP address
allow from 18.104.22.168 #specify a specific address
allow from 22.214.171.124/30 #specify a subnet range
allow from 123.123.* #specify an IP address wildcard
deny from all
Note: This will still allow scripts to use the files in the directory.